Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Nov. 30, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation:
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of CCA and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively the “Company”). All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Estimates and Assumptions:
The consolidated financial statements include the use of estimates, which management believes are reasonable. The process of preparing financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”), requires management to make estimates and assumptions regarding certain types of assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses. Such estimates primarily relate to unsettled transactions and events as of the date of the financial statements. Accounting estimates and assumptions are those that management considers to be most critical to the financial statements because they inherently involve significant judgment and uncertainties. All of these estimates and assumptions reflect management’s best judgment about current economic and market conditions and their effects on the information available as of the date of the consolidated financial statements. Accordingly, upon settlement, actual results may differ from estimated amounts.
Cash and Cash Equivalents:
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Accounts receivable consist of trade receivables recorded at original invoice amount, less an estimated allowance for uncollectible amounts. The accounts receivable balance is further reduced by an allowance for cooperative advertising and reserves for returns which are anticipated to be taken as credits against the balances as of November 30, 2017. The allowances and reserves which are anticipated to be deducted from future invoices are included in accrued liabilities. Trade credit is generally extended on a short term basis; thus trade receivables do not bear interest. Trade receivables are periodically evaluated for collectability based on past credit history with customers and their current financial condition. Changes in the estimated collectability of trade receivables are recorded in the results of operations for the period in which the estimate is revised. Trade receivables that are deemed uncollectible are offset against the allowance for uncollectible accounts. The Company generally does not require collateral for trade receivables.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (weighted average) or net realizable value. Product returns deemed saleable are recorded in inventory when they are received at the lower of their original cost or net realizable value, as appropriate. Obsolete inventory is written off and its value is removed from inventory at the time its obsolescence is determined.
Property and Equipment and Depreciation and Amortization:
Property and equipment are stated at cost. The Company charges to expense repairs and maintenance items, while major improvements and betterments are capitalized.
When the Company sells or otherwise disposes of property and equipment items, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the respective accounts and any gain or loss is included in earnings.
Depreciation and amortization are provided utilizing the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives or lease terms of the assets, whichever is shorter:
Intangible assets, which consist of patents and trademarks, are stated at cost. Patents are amortized on the straight-line method over a period of 17 years. Patents are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in business indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Trademarks are indefinite lived intangible assets and are reviewed for impairment annually or more frequently if impairment conditions occur. In the years ended November 30, 2017, November 30, 2016 and November 30, 2015, the Company determined that it would no longer use certain trademarks and recorded charges of $1,070, $0 and $220,286, respectively, to write off the related carrying amount which is recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses.
Long-lived assets are assets in which the Company has an economic benefit for longer than twelve months from the date of the financial statements. Long-lived assets include property and equipment, intangible assets, deferred income taxes and other assets. The Company evaluates impairment losses on long-lived assets used in operations when events and circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. If the review indicates that the carrying value of an asset will not be recoverable, based on a comparison of the carrying value of the asset to the undiscounted future cash flows, the impairment will be measured by comparing the carrying value of the asset to its fair value. Fair value will be determined based on quoted market values, discounted cash flows or appraisals. Impairments are recorded in the statement of operations as part of selling, general and administrative expenses.
Revenue Recognition: (See also Cooperative Advertising)
The Company recognizes sales in accordance with ASC Topic 605 “Revenue Recognition”. Revenue is recognized upon shipment of merchandise. Net sales comprise gross revenues less expected returns, trade discounts, customer allowances and various sales incentives. Included in sales incentives are coupons that the Company issues that are redeemed by its customers. Redemptions are handled by a coupon national clearing house. The Company also has estimated that there is an approximate six week lag in coupon redemptions, with the estimated cost recorded as an accrued liability. Although no legal right of return exists between the customer and the Company, returns, including return of unsold products, are accepted if it is in the best interests of the Company's relationship with the customer. The Company, therefore, records a reserve for returns based on the historical returns as a percentage of sales in the three preceding months, adjusting for returns that can be put back into inventory, and a specific reserve based on customer circumstances. The reserves which are anticipated to be deducted from future invoices are included in accrued liabilities. Changes in the estimated coupon reserve and sales return reserve are recorded to Sales of health and beauty aid products - net, in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Cooperative advertising is accrued based on a combination of new contracts given to the customers in the current fiscal year, along with what is left open from prior years. Specific new contracts in the current fiscal year are identified as sales incentives (see sales incentives) and those contracts reduce revenues for the current period. The open balances for all years open are reduced throughout the year by either the customer advertising and submitting the proof according to the contract or by customer post audit adjustments that finalize any amount due. Any item open more than three years is closed unless management believes that a deduction may still be taken by the customer. The balance of open
cooperative advertising is then allocated between accrued liabilities and the allowance for cooperative advertising based the customer's open accounts receivable balance. As a result of completion of customer post audit reviews, open cooperative advertising that was accrued for in previous years was decreased by $817,972 for the fiscal year ended November 30, 2017. For fiscal year ended November 30, 2016 and 2015, the reserve for open cooperative advertising was decreased $589,167 and $670,513, respectively.
The Company has accounted for certain sales incentives offered to customers by charging them directly to sales as opposed to advertising and promotional expense. These accounting adjustments do not affect net loss.
The Company’s policy for financial reporting is to charge shipping costs as part of selling, general and administrative expenses as incurred. For the years ended November 30, 2017, 2016 and 2015 included in selling, general and administrative expenses are shipping costs of $346,408, $447,610 and $616,367, respectively.
The Company’s policy for financial reporting is to charge advertising cost to expense as incurred. Advertising, cooperative and promotional expenses for the years ended November 30, 2017, 2016 and 2015 were $1,769,748, $1,219,413 and $3,524,074, respectively.
Research and Development Costs:
The Company's policy for financial reporting is to charge research and development costs to expense as incurred. Research and development costs for the years ended November 30, 2017, 2016 and 2015 were $58,920, $46,382 and $75,208, respectively.
Income taxes are accounted for under ASC Topic 740 “Income Taxes”, which utilizes the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for future tax consequences attributable to the temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities as recorded on the Company’s financial statements and the carrying amounts as reflected on the Company’s income tax return. In addition, the portion of charitable contributions that cannot be deducted in the current period and are carried forward to future periods are also reflected in the deferred tax assets. A substantial portion of the deferred tax asset is due to the losses incurred in fiscal 2015 and prior years, the benefit of which will be carried forward into future tax years. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are valued using the tax rates expected to apply in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion, or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. Management has estimated that it will utilize the entire deferred tax asset in future years based on projections of future profits. However profits can be impacted in the future if the Company’s sales decrease. The portion that management expects to utilize in fiscal 2018 is recorded as a short term asset, and the portion that management expects to utilize in fiscal years subsequent to fiscal 2018 are recorded as a long term asset. Beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2018, in accordance with ASU 2015-17, all deferred tax assets and liabilities will be recorded as a long term asset.
The Company previously adopted the provisions of ASC Subtopic 740-10-25, “Uncertain Tax Positions”. Management believes that there were no unrecognized tax benefits, or tax positions that would result in uncertainty regarding the deductions taken, as of November 30, 2017 and November 30, 2016. ASC Subtopic 740-10-25 prescribes a recognition threshold and a measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities.
Tax credits, when present, are accounted for using the flow-through method as a reduction of income taxes in the
Income (Loss) Per Common Share:
Basic net (loss) income per share is calculated in accordance with ASC Topic 260, “Earnings Per Share”, which requires using the average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the year. Diluted net (loss) income per share is computed on the basis of the average number of common shares outstanding plus the dilutive effect of any common stock equivalents using the “treasury stock method” and warrants. Common stock equivalents consist of stock options.
ASC Topic 718, “Stock Compensation,” requires stock grants to employees to be recognized in the consolidated statement of operations based on their fair values. The Company issued stock options in fiscal 2017 and 2016, see Note 16 for details.
Certain prior years amounts have been reclassified to conform with the current year’s presentation.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, Leases. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (ROU) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, with certain practical expedients available. While we are still evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of the new standard on our consolidated financial statements, we expect that upon adoption we will recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities and that the amounts could be material.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, which is an update to Topic 740, "Income Taxes". The update will require that all deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as non-current. The update is effective for fiscal years, and the interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2016. ASU 2015-17 will have a material impact on the Company's balance sheet, as the deferred tax reported as a current asset will be reported as a non-current asset once the update is effective, resulting in a decrease to the Company's current ratio. As of November 30, 2017, the Company reported $2,079,988 of deferred tax as a current asset. The Company will be reporting all deferred tax assets as a non-current asset beginning with the first quarter of fiscal 2018. It is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's results of operations.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”. This new standard will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective. The underlying principle of this new standard is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration for which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Entities may adopt this new standard either retrospectively for all periods presented in the financial statements (i.e., the full retrospective method) or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption (i.e., the modified retrospective method), without applying to comparative years’ financial statements. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Deferral of the Effective Date,” which changed the effective date for implementation to annual reporting periods, including interim reporting periods within those periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted as of annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim reporting periods within those annual periods. The Company does not plan to adopt ASU 2014-09 until its 2019 fiscal year which begins on December 1, 2018. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact that ASU No. 2014-09 will have on the Company’s results of operations, financial condition and financial statement disclosures and will provide further updates in future periods.
Management does not believe that any recently issued, but not yet effective, accounting standards if currently adopted would have a material effect on the accompanying financial statements.